16 maio 2020

DMitry: Deepmagic Information Gathering Tool


"DMitry (Deepmagic Information Gathering Tool) is a UNIX/(GNU)Linux Command Line Application coded in C. DMitry has the ability to gather as much information as possible about a host. Base functionality is able to gather possible subdomains, email addresses, uptime information, tcp port scan, whois lookups, and more." read more...


Download: http://packetstormsecurity.org/UNIX/misc/DMitry-1.2a.tar.gz

More info


TERMINOLOGIES OF ETHICAL HACKING

What is the terminologies in ethical hacking?

Here are a few key terms that you will hear in discussion about hackers and what they do:


1-Backdoor-A secret pathway a hacker uses to gain entry to a computer system.


2-Adware-It is the softw-are designed to force pre-chosen ads to display on your system.


3-Attack-That action performs by a attacker on a system to gain unauthorized access.


4-Buffer Overflow-It is the process of attack where the hacker delivers malicious commands to a system by overrunning an application buffer.


5-Denial-of-Service attack (DOS)-A attack designed to cripple the victim's system by preventing it from handling its normal traffic,usally by flooding it with false traffic.


6-Email Warm-A virus-laden script or mini-program sent to an unsuspecting victim through a normal-looking email message.


7-Bruteforce Attack-It is an automated and simplest kind of method to gain access to a system or website. It tries different combination of usernames and passwords,again & again until it gets in from bruteforce dictionary.


8-Root Access-The highest level of access to a computer system,which can give them complete control over the system.


9-Root Kit-A set of tools used by an intruder to expand and disguise his control of the system.It is the stealthy type of software used for gain access to a computer system.


10-Session Hijacking- When a hacker is able to insert malicious data packets right into an actual data transmission over the internet connection.


11-Phreaker-Phreakers are considered the original computer hackers who break into the telephone network illegally, typically to make free longdistance phone calls or to tap lines.


12-Trojan Horse-It is a malicious program that tricks the computer user into opening it.There designed with an intention to destroy files,alter information,steal password or other information.


13-Virus-It is piece of code or malicious program which is capable of copying itself has a detrimental effect such as corrupting the system od destroying data. Antivirus is used to protect the system from viruses.


14-Worms-It is a self reflicating virus that does not alter  files but resides in the active memory and duplicate itself.


15-Vulnerability-It is a weakness which allows a hacker to compromise the security of a computer or network system to gain unauthorized access.


16-Threat-A threat is a possible danger that can exploit an existing bug or vulnerability to comprise the security of a computer or network system. Threat is of two types-physical & non physical.


17-Cross-site Scripting-(XSS) It is a type of computer security vulnerability found in web application.It enables attacker to inject client side script into web pages viwed by other users.


18-Botnet-It is also known as Zombie Army is a group of computers controlled without their owner's knowledge.It is used to send spam or make denial of service attacks.


19-Bot- A bot is a program that automates an action so that it can be done repeatedly at a much higher rate for a period than a human operator could do it.Example-Sending HTTP, FTP oe Telnet at a higer rate or calling script to creat objects at a higher rate.


20-Firewall-It is a designed to keep unwanted intruder outside a computer system or network for safe communication b/w system and users on the inside of the firewall.


21-Spam-A spam is unsolicited email or junk email sent to a large numbers of receipients without their consent.


22-Zombie Drone-It is defined as a hi-jacked computer that is being used anonymously as a soldier or drone for malicious activity.ExDistributing Unwanted Spam Emails.


23-Logic Bomb-It is a type of virus upload in to a system that triggers a malicious action when certain conditions are met.The most common version is Time Bomb.


24-Shrink Wrap code-The process of attack for exploiting the holes in unpatched or poorly configured software.


25-Malware-It is an umbrella term used to refer a variety of intrusive software, including computer viruses,worms,Trojan Horses,Ransomeware,spyware,adware, scareware and other malicious program.


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15 maio 2020

CEH Practical: Information-Gathering Methodology

 

Information gathering can be broken into seven logical steps. Footprinting is performed during the first two steps of unearthing initial information and locating the network range.


Footprinting

Footprinting is defined as the process of establishing a scenario or creating a map of an organization's network and systems. Information gathering is also known as footprinting an organization. Footprinting is an important part of reconnaissance process which is typically used for collecting possible information about a targeted computer system or network. Active and Passive both could be Footprinting. The example of passive footprinting is assessment of a company's website, whereas attempting to gain access to sensitive information through social engineering is an example of active information gathering. Basically footprinting is the beginning step of hacker to get hacked someone because having information about targeted computer system is the main aspect of hacking. If you have an information about individual you wanna hack so you can easily hacked that individual. The basic purpose of information gathering is at least decide what type of attacks will be more suitable for the target. Here are some of the pieces of information to be gathered about a target
during footprinting:
  • Domain name
  • Network blocks
  • Network services and applications
  • System architecture
  • Intrusion detection system
  • Authentication mechanisms
  • Specific IP addresses
  • Access control mechanisms
  • Phone numbers
  • Contact addresses
Once this information is assemble, it can give a hacker better perception into the organization, where important information is stored, and how it can be accessed.

Footprinting Tools 

Footprinting can be done using hacking tools, either applications or websites, which allow the hacker to locate information passively. By using these footprinting tools, a hacker can gain some basic information on, or "footprint," the target. By first footprinting the target, a hacker can eliminate tools that will not work against the target systems or network. For example, if a graphics design firm uses all Macintosh computers, then all hacking software that targets Windows systems can be eliminated. Footprinting not only speeds up the hacking process by eliminating certain tool sets but also minimizes the chance of detection as fewer hacking attempts can be made by using the right tool for the job. Some of the common tools used for footprinting and information gathering are as follows:
  • Domain name lookup
  • Whois
  • NSlookup
  • Sam Spade
Before we discuss these tools, keep in mind that open source information can also yield a wealth of information about a target, such as phone numbers and addresses. Performing Whois requests, searching domain name system (DNS) tables, and using other lookup web tools are forms of open source footprinting. Most of this information is fairly easy to get and legal to obtain.

Footprinting a Target 

Footprinting is part of the preparatory pre-attack phase and involves accumulating data regarding a target's environment and architecture, usually for the purpose of finding ways to intrude into that environment. Footprinting can reveal system vulnerabilities and identify the ease with which they can be exploited. This is the easiest way for hackers to gather information about computer systems and the companies they belong to. The purpose of this preparatory phase is to learn as much as you can about a system, its remote access capabilities, its ports and services, and any specific aspects of its security.

DNS Enumeration

DNS enumeration is the process of locating all the DNS servers and their corresponding records for an organization. A company may have both internal and external DNS servers that can yield information such as usernames, computer names, and IP addresses of potential target systems.

NSlookup and DNSstuff

One powerful tool you should be familiar with is NSlookup (see Figure 2.2). This tool queries DNS servers for record information. It's included in Unix, Linux, and Windows operating systems. Hacking tools such as Sam Spade also include NSlookup tools. Building on the information gathered from Whois, you can use NSlookup to find additional IP addresses for servers and other hosts. Using the authoritative name server information from Whois ( AUTH1.NS.NYI.NET ), you can discover the IP address of the mail server.

Syntax

nslookup www.sitename.com
nslookup www.usociety4.com
Performing DNS Lookup
This search reveals all the alias records for www.google.com and the IP address of the web server. You can even discover all the name servers and associated IP addresses.

Understanding Whois and ARIN Lookups

Whois evolved from the Unix operating system, but it can now be found in many operating systems as well as in hacking toolkits and on the Internet. This tool identifies who has registered domain names used for email or websites. A uniform resource locator (URL), such as www.Microsoft.com , contains the domain name ( Microsoft.com ) and a hostname or alias ( www ).
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) requires registration of domain names to ensure that only a single company uses a specific domain name. The Whois tool queries the registration database to retrieve contact information about the individual or organization that holds a domain registration.

Using Whois

  • Go to the DNSStuff.com website and scroll down to the free tools at the bottom of the page.
  • Enter your target company URL in the WHOIS Lookup field and click the WHOIS button.
  • Examine the results and determine the following:
    • Registered address
    • Technical and DNS contacts
    • Contact email
    • Contact phone number
    • Expiration date
  • Visit the company website and see if the contact information from WHOIS matches up to any contact names, addresses, and email addresses listed on the website.
  • If so, use Google to search on the employee names or email addresses. You can learn the email naming convention used by the organization, and whether there is any information that should not be publicly available.

Syntax

whois sitename.com
whois usociety4.com

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DOWNLOAD OCTOSNIFF 2.0.3 FULL VERSION – PLAYSTATION AND XBOX IP SNIFFER

OctoSniff is a network research tool that allows you to determine information about all the other players you're playing with. It is compatible with PS, XBox 360 and XBox One. It has many other features that make it a great sniffing tool. Some people think it might be a tool like Wireshark or Cain n Abel. No, it's not a tool like that. It simply sniffs players that let you know who's really playing. Download OctoSniff 2.0.3 full version. It's only for educational purposes to use.

FEATURES

  • VPN Optimized
  • Supports Wireless & Wired Spoofing
  • Detects Geo IP and Complete Location
  • Searches Usernames of Players in the Lobby
  • Really easy to setup

DOWNLOAD OCTOSNIFF 2.0.3 FULL VERSION

Related word


Nmap: Getting Started Guide


Nmap is a free utility tool for network discovery, port scanning and security auditing, even though we can use it for more than that but in this article we will learn how to do these three things with nmap.

The original author of nmap is Gordon Lyon (Fyodor). Nmap is licensed under GPL v2 and has available ports in many different languages. Nmap is available for Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X. You can download your copy of nmap from their website.

Lets get started with nmap.

When performing pentests we always look for networks we are going to attack. We need to identify live hosts on the network so that we can attack them. There are plenty of tools available for finding live hosts on a network but nmap is one of the best tools for doing this job.

Lets start with simple host (target) discovery scans i,e scans that will tell us which ip address is up on our target network. Those ip addresses which are up on our target network are the ones that are assigned to a device connected on our target network. Every device on the network is going to have a unique ip address.
To perform a simple host discovery scan we use the following command

nmap -v -sn 10.10.10.0/24




flags we used in the above command are
-v for verbose output
-sn to disable port scan (we don't want to scan for ports right now)

Following the flags is the ip address of the target network on which we want to look for live hosts. The /24 at the end of the ip address is the CIDR that specifies the subnet of the network on which we are looking for live hosts.

After running the above command you should get a list of live hosts on your target network.
If you just want to know the list of ip addresses your command is going to scan, you can use the -sL flag of the nmap like this.

nmap -sL 10.10.10.0/24

this command will simply output the list of ip addresses to scan.

We sometimes want to do dns resolution (resolving ip addresses to domain names) when performing our network scans and sometimes we don't want dns resolution. While performing a host discovery scan with nmap if we want to perform dns resolution we use -R flag in our command like this:

nmap -v -sn -R 10.10.10.0/24

And if we don't want to perform dns resolution of hosts during our scan we add the -n flag to our command like this:

nmap -v -sn -n 10.10.10.0/24

After we have discovered the hosts that are up on our target network, we usually put the ip addresses of these hosts into a file for further enumeration.

Next step in our enumeration would be to detect which operating system and which ports are running on these live hosts, for that we run this command:

nmap -O -v 10.10.10.119


here we use -O (capital o not zero) for operating system detection and by default nmap performs SYN Scan for port discovery. However nmap scans for 1000 ports only by default of a particular host.

To make nmap go over a list of ip addresses in a file we use -iL flag like this:

nmap -O -v -iL targetlist

where targetlist is the name of the file which contains ip addresses that we want to perform port scan on.

To make nmap scan all the ports of a target we use the -p flag like this:

nmap -p- -v 10.10.10.121

We can also specify a range of ports using the -p flag like this:

nmap -p1-500 -v 10.10.10.121

here 1-500 means scan all the ports from 1 to 500.

We can use a number of scan techniques to discover open ports on our network but I will only discuss some of them for brevity.

We can perform a TCP SYN scan using nmap with -sS flag like this:

nmap -sS -v 10.10.10.150

We have also flags for TCP connect and ACK scans which are -sT -sA

nmap -sT -v 10.10.10.150

nmap -sA -v 10.10.10.150

We can also perform UDP scan as well instead of TCP scan using -sU flag

nmap -sU -v 10.10.10.150

We can perform TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans using the flags -sN, -sF, -sX

nmap -sN -v 10.10.10.150

nmap -sF -v 10.10.10.150

nmap -sX -v 10.10.10.150

If you don't know what these scans are then please visit Port Scanning Techniques and Algorithms for explanation.

After discovering the open ports on our target host, we want to enumerate what services are running on those open ports. To enumerate services and versions information on open ports we use the -sV flag like this:

nmap -sV -v 10.10.10.118

This should give us information about what services are running on what ports and what versions of those services are running on the target host.

nmap has an interesting feature called NSE nmap scripting engine. It allows users to write their own scripts, using the Lua programming language, to automate a wide variety of networking tasks. nmap ships with a diverse set of scripts which are very helpful to enumerate a target. To use the nmap default set of scripts while enumerating the target, we use the -sC flag like this:

nmap -sC -sV -v 10.10.10.118

We can also save the results of our nmap scans to a file using the -o flag like this

nmap -sC -sV -v -oA defaultscan 10.10.10.119

here -oA tells the nmap to output results in the three major formats at once and defaultscan is the name of the file that will be prepended to all the three output files.

This is the end of this short tutorial see you next time.

References:
https://nmap.org/book/scan-methods-null-fin-xmas-scan.html
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14 maio 2020

Saycheese - Grab Target'S Webcam Shots By Link


Take webcam shots from target just sending a malicious link.

How it works?
The tool generates a malicious HTTPS page using Serveo or Ngrok Port Forwarding methods, and a javascript code to cam requests using MediaDevices.getUserMedia.
The MediaDevices.getUserMedia() method prompts the user for permission to use a media input which produces a MediaStream with tracks containing the requested types of media. That stream can include, for example, a video track (produced by either a hardware or virtual video source such as a camera, video recording device, screen sharing service, and so forth), an audio track (similarly, produced by a physical or virtual audio source like a microphone, A/D converter, or the like), and possibly other track types.
See more about MediaDEvices.getUserMedia() here
To convince the target to grant permissions to access the cam, the page uses a javascript code made by https://github.com/wybiral that turns the favicon into a cam stream.

Installing (Kali Linux/Termux):
git clone https://github.com/thelinuxchoice/saycheese
cd saycheese
bash saycheese.sh




via KitPloit
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Blockchain Exploitation Labs - Part 1 Smart Contract Re-Entrancy


Why/What Blockchain Exploitation?

In this blog series we will analyze blockchain vulnerabilities and exploit them ourselves in various lab and development environments. If you would like to stay up to date on new posts follow and subscribe to the following:
Twitter: @ficti0n
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/c/ConsoleCowboys
URL: http://cclabs.io
          http://consolecowboys.com

As of late I have been un-naturally obsessed with blockchains and crypto currency. With that obsession comes the normal curiosity of "How do I hack this and steal all the monies?"

However, as usual I could not find any actual walk thorough or solid examples of actually exploiting real code live. Just theory and half way explained examples.

That question with labs is exactly what we are going to cover in this series, starting with the topic title above of Re-Entrancy attacks which allow an attacker to siphon out all of the money held within a smart contract, far beyond that of their own contribution to the contract.
This will be a lab based series and I will show you how to use demo the code within various test environments and local environments in order to perform and re-create each attacks for yourself.  

Note: As usual this is live ongoing research and info will be released as it is coded and exploited.

If you are bored of reading already and just want to watch videos for this info or are only here for the demos and labs check out the first set of videos in the series at the link below and skip to the relevant parts for you, otherwise lets get into it:


Background Info:

This is a bit of a harder topic to write about considering most of my audience are hackers not Ethereum developers or blockchain architects. So you may not know what a smart contract is nor how it is situated within the blockchain development model. So I am going to cover a little bit of context to help with understanding.  I will cover the bare minimum needed as an attacker.

A Standard Application Model:
  • In client server we generally have the following:
  • Front End - what the user sees (HTML Etc)
  • Server Side - code that handles business logic
  • Back End - Your database for example MySQL

A Decentralized Application Model:

Now with a Decentralized applications (DAPP) on the blockchain you have similar front end server side technology however
  • Smart contracts are your access into the blockchain.
  • Your smart contract is kind of like an API
  • Essentially DAPPs are Ethereum enabled applications using smart contracts as an API to the blockchain data ledger
  • DAPPs can be banking applications, wallets, video games etc.

A blockchain is a trust-less peer to peer decentralized database or ledger

The back-end is distributed across thousands of nodes in its entirety on each node. Meaning every single node has a Full "database" of information called a ledger.  The second difference is that this ledger is immutable, meaning once data goes in, data cannot be changed. This will come into play later in this discussion about smart contracts.

Consensus:

The blockchain of these decentralized ledgers is synchronized by a consensus mechanism you may be familiar with called "mining" or more accurately, proof of work or optionally Proof of stake.

Proof of stake is simply staking large sums of coins which are at risk of loss if one were to perform a malicious action while helping to perform consensus of data.   

Much like proof of stake, proof of work(mining) validates hashing calculations to come to a consensus but instead of loss of coins there is a loss of energy, which costs money, without reward if malicious actions were to take place.

Each block contains transactions from the transaction pool combined with a nonce that meets the difficulty requirements.  Once a block is found and accepted it places them on the blockchain in which more then half of the network must reach a consensus on. 

The point is that no central authority controls the nodes or can shut them down. Instead there is consensus from all nodes using either proof of work or proof of stake. They are spread across the whole world leaving a single centralized jurisdiction as an impossibility.

Things to Note: 

First Note: Immutability

  • So, the thing to note is that our smart contracts are located on the blockchain
  • And the blockchain is immutable
  • This means an Agile development model is not going to work once a contract is deployed.
  • This means that updates to contracts is next to impossible
  • All you can really do is createa kill-switch or fail safe functions to disable and execute some actions if something goes wrong before going permanently dormant.
  • If you don't include a kill switch the contract is open and available and you can't remove it

Second Note:  Code Is Open Source
  • Smart Contracts are generally open source
  • Which means people like ourselves are manually bug hunting smart contracts and running static analysis tools against smart contract code looking for bugs.

When issues are found the only course of action is:
  • Kill the current contract which stays on the blockchain
  • Then deploy a whole new version.
  • If there is no killSwitch the contract will be available forever.
Now I know what you're thinking, these things are ripe for exploitation.
And you would be correct based on the 3rd note


Third Note: Security in the development process is lacking
  • Many contracts and projects do not even think about and SDLC.
  • They rarely add penetration testing and vulnerability testing in the development stages if at all
  • At best there is a bug bounty before the release of their main-nets
  • Which usually get hacked to hell and delayed because of it.
  • Things are getting better but they are still behind the curve, as the technology is new and blockchain mostly developers and marketers.  Not hackers or security testers.


Forth Note:  Potential Data Exposure via Future Broken Crypto
  • If sensitive data is placed on the blockchain it is there forever
  • Which means that if a cryptographic algorithm is broken anything which is encrypted with that algorithm is now accessible
  • We all know that algorithms are eventually broken!
  • So its always advisable to keep sensitive data hashed for integrity on the blockchain but not actually stored on the blockchain directly


 Exploitation of Re-Entrancy Vulnerabilities:

With a bit of the background out of the way let's get into the first attack in this series.

Re-Entrancy attacks allow an attacker to create a re-cursive loop within a contract by having the contract call the target function rather than a single request from a  user. Instead the request comes from the attackers contract which does not let the target contracts execution complete until the tasks intended by the attacker are complete. Usually this task will be draining the money out of the contract until all of the money for every user is in the attackers account.

Example Scenario:

Let's say that you are using a bank and you have deposited 100 dollars into your bank account.  Now when you withdraw your money from your bank account the bank account first sends you 100 dollars before updating your account balance.

Well what if when you received your 100 dollars, it was sent to malicious code that called the withdraw function again not letting  the initial target deduct your balance ?

With this scenario you could then request 100 dollars, then request 100 again and you now have 200 dollars sent to you from the bank. But 50% of that money is not yours. It's from the whole collection of money that the bank is tasked to maintain for its accounts.

Ok that's pretty cool, but what if that was in a re-cursive loop that did not BREAK until all accounts at the bank were empty?  

That is Re-Entrancy in a nutshell.   So let's look at some code.

Example Target Code:


           function withdraw(uint withdrawAmount) public returns (uint) {
       
1.         require(withdrawAmount <= balances[msg.sender]);
2.         require(msg.sender.call.value(withdrawAmount)());

3.          balances[msg.sender] -= withdrawAmount;
4.          return balances[msg.sender];
        }

Line 1: Checks that you are only withdrawing the amount you have in your account or sends back an error.
Line 2: Sends your requested amount to the address the requested that withdrawal.
Line 3: Deducts the amount you withdrew from your account from your total balance.
Line 4. Simply returns your current balance.

Ok this all seems logical.. however the issue is in Line 2 - Line 3.   The balance is being sent back to you before the balance is deducted. So if you were to call this from a piece of code which just accepts anything which is sent to it, but then re-calls the withdraw function you have a problem as it never gets to Line 3 which deducts the balance from your total. This means that Line 1 will always have enough money to keep withdrawing.

Let's take a look at how we would do that:

Example Attacking Code:


          function attack() public payable {
1.           bankAddress.withdraw(amount);
         }

2.    function () public payable {
         
3.            if (address(bankAddress).balance >= amount) {
4.               bankAddress.withdraw(amount);
                }
}

Line 1: This function is calling the banks withdraw function with an amount less than the total in your account
Line 2: This second function is something called a fallback function. This function is used to accept payments that come into the contract when no function is specified. You will notice this function does not have a name but is set to payable.
Line 3:  This line is checking that the target accounts balance is greater than the amount being withdrawn.
Line 4:  Then again calling the withdraw function to continue the loop which will in turn be sent back to the fallback function and repeat lines over and over until the target contracts balance is less than the amount being requested.



Review the diagram above which shows the code paths between the target and attacking code. During this whole process the first code example from the withdraw function is only ever getting to lines 1-2 until the bank is drained of money. It never actually deducts your requested amount until the end when the full contract balance is lower then your withdraw amount. At this point it's too late and there is no money left in the contract.


Setting up a Lab Environment and coding your Attack:

Hopefully that all made sense. If you watch the videos associated with this blog you will see it all in action.  We will now analyze code of a simple smart contract banking application. We will interface with this contract via our own smart contract we code manually and turn into an exploit to take advantage of the vulnerability.

Download the target code from the following link:

Then lets open up an online ethereum development platform at the following link where we will begin analyzing and exploiting smart contracts in real time in the video below:

Coding your Exploit and Interfacing with a Contract Programmatically:

The rest of this blog will continue in the video below where we will  manually code an interface to a full smart contract and write an exploit to take advantage of a Re-Entrency Vulnerability:

 


Conclusion: 

In this smart contract exploit writing intro we showed a vulnerability that allowed for re entry to a contract in a recursive loop. We then manually created an exploit to take advantage of the vulnerability. This is just the beginning, as this series progresses you will see other types of vulnerabilities and have the ability to code and exploit them yourself.  On this journey through the decentralized world you will learn how to code and craft exploits in solidity using various development environments and test nets.

Read more


13 maio 2020

Facebook Plans To Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency

Facebook Plans To Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency

Facebook Plans To Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency

Facebook Plans To Launch Its Own Cryptocurrency

The social network giant, Facebook is going through a bad phase with lots of ups and down. The recent scandal with Cambridge Analytica has caused the world's largest social network giant Facebook to change its stance on user privacy and to be more transparent about its use of the data it collects.
Since then, some social networks based in Blockchain have been popularized, namely Sphere, Steemit, and Howdoo. However, recently, something unusual announcement is announced by the social network giant Facebook itself, in which Facebook stated that it is investing in a Blockchain-based solution development team, but, the purpose of the project is not yet known.
It was with a post on the Facebook page that David Marcus confirmed his departure from the Messenger team and the creation of a small group dedicated to finding solutions based on the potential of Blockchain technology for Facebook.
David Marcus has not given much detail on the work he will do with his new group, saying only that they will study Blockchain from scratch so that they can use this revolutionary technology for Facebook.
"I'm setting up a small group to explore how to leverage Blockchain across Facebook, starting from scratch," stated David Marcus.
Despite being connected to Facebook's Messenger since 2014, David Marcus is no novice in these financial issues related to money transfers. In addition to having introduced the possibility of P2P payments in Messenger itself, David Marcus was President of PayPal and CEO of Zong, a company dedicated to payments on mobile devices.
However, his experience in this segment does not allow us to conclude that Facebook will create or support a crypto coin, but, it also doesn't mean that it will launch or support any crypto coin of its own. Blockchain technology has become famous thanks to crypto-coins, especially Bitcoin, but its potential expands dramatically to other areas.
The potential of Blockchain goes from the crypto-coins to the creation of real ecosystems online, supported by the users of the network. Sharing and storing data is a legacy that Blockchain allows you to explore and maybe the fact that Facebook will use it in your favor.
The lead post in Messenger was then handed over to Stan Chudnovsky, who now heads one of the most widely used communication services around the world, alongside WhatsApp.
Rumors also point out that James Everingham and Kevin Weil, both from Instagram, will also join David Marcus in this new onslaught of Facebook to one of today's most acclaimed technologies.
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How To Start PHP And MYSQL | The Best Server For PHP And MYSQL | Tutorial 1


Many of people want to start PHP programming embedded with MYSQL databases concepts. So i thought that I should start a series about PHP and MYSQL. So in this series of video tutorials you exactly got the content about PHP and MYSQL.

As PHP is server side scripting language. So it requires a server to get execute over the web browser. First of all you have to download and install a server that may be XAMPP, WAMPP or LAMPP. I'm using XAMPP server in the tutorials. So if you wanna follow me then download a XAMPP server. I'm using this because it has a good interface to work  and it's really simple. XAMPP is compatible with windows, MAC and Linux operating as well. WAMPP is only for windows and LAMPP is used for MAC and Linux operating system. So i prefer XAMPP for this series.

How to create Database

Step 1:

Open Your XAMPP control panel and start Apache and Mysql services.

Step 2:

Go to your Web browser and type "localhost/phpmyadmin". It will open your databases area. If you have an error then your services are not in running state. If you have any error then comment below.

Step 3:

Click over the "new" to create a new database.

Step 4:

Write Database_Name and click over the Create button. For example Facebook, Students etc.

Step 5:

Write Table_Name like admin, users etc. your can increase and decrease the size of rows. Click over Save/Create button.

Step 6:

Write your Attribute_Names in first column like Username, Email, Passwords etc. In the next data type column you have to select the data type whether it is integer or string type etc. In the next column you have to set the length of string/words.

Step 7:

If you wanna go through with a Primary_Key. Then just you have to checked the Auto_Increment box as you will shown in the video. For further watch the video for better understanding.